A target indicates where a rewrite is to be applied. Targets are given by the grammar:
[target] ::= in [hyp] at [occurrences]
in [hyp] (shorthand for: in hyp at 0)
[targets] ::= [target] ...
[epsilon] (shorthand for: in concl at 0)
at [occurrences] (shorthand for: in concl at [occurrences])
[occurrences] ::= [numbers] (rewrite the indicated hit numbers)
pos [numbers] (rewrite the indicated term positions)
all (rewrite all hits)
In a [short-target]
(as in reduce) the in
can be omitted.
Hit numbers are counted in a pre-order, left-to-right traversal
starting at 0. Hits are counted anew for each application, so if a
rewrite eliminates a hit, then using that rewrite on the first two
hits would be occurrences 0 0
(not 0 1
). The testRewrite
tool can assist in counting hits.
Term positions are also counted in a pre-order, left-to-right
traversal starting at 0. Position counts are affected by the fact
that paths are stored in spinal notation, so in x y z
, position 0 is
x y z
, position 1 is y
, and position 2 is z
. There is no
specific position for x
or x y
, but all rewrites will act on the
prefix of a path so 0 will do. The showPosition
tool can assist in counting positions.
When a hypothesis is rewritten, only earlier hypotheses are available to the rewrite. Thus, for example, a hypothetical equality can only be used to rewrite a later hypothesis. Similarly, any hypotheses used to satisfy typing obligations that are incurred by a rewrite must appear before the hypothesis being rewritten.
Some rewrites take a set of binders using the syntax within
[captures]
. These binders are used when rewriting beneath bindings.
If n binders are supplied, the innermost n bindings are captured at
the site of a prospective rewrite, and are given the supplied names.
Those names can be used in terms that are supplied to the rewrite.
If the within [captures]
syntax is omitted, the captures list is taken
to be empty.
-> [equation] within [captures]
The equation is a term (usually a hypothesis or lemma name) which,
after exploitation (see eexploit), has type
R M N
where R is a relation. (Often R is equality.) Replaces M
with N. Intermediate matching.
--> [equation] within [captures]
As above, but uses strict matching.
<- [equation] within [captures]
As above but replaces N with M. Intermediate matching.
<-- [equation] within [captures]
As above, but uses strict matching.
[term M] = [term N] : [term A] within [captures]
Replaces M with N. Generates a subgoal to establish that
M = N : A
. Strict matching.
In the above rewrites, the term being replaced cannot have an evar head. That is, it must not be an evar, nor an elim starting from an evar.
Relations supported by unaugmented Istari include eq
(_ = _ : _
),
eqtp
(_ = _ : type
), eeqtp
(<:>
), subtype
(<:
), iff
(<->
), and arrow
. Note that arrows in an equation are interpreted
as antecedents for the relation, not as the relation itself. Thus, to
rewrite using arrow, one should use the synonym implies
, which
unfolds to arrow
. Other relations can be supported by adding to the
rewriter’s weakening and compatibility tables.
rewrite /[rewrite] [targets]/
Applies the rewrite to the indicated targets.
rewriteRaw /[rewrite] [targets]/
As rewrite
but do not run the type checker.
rewriteThen /[rewrite] [targets]/ [tac]
As rewrite
but then run tac
on the first subgoal. Intended for use
with rewrites using the equation form.
convert /[term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Replaces the target term with M
, if they are beta-equivalent.
(Finding hit numbers may be slow.)
convertHead /[constant c] -> [term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Replaces the target term (having head constant c
) with M
, if
they are beta-equivalent. (Cheaper than convert.)
fold /[term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Folds the target term to become M
. The outermost form of the
target term must match precisely the outermost form of the normal
form of the unfolding of M
.
convertFold /[term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Folds the target term to become M
. (Finding hit numbers may be
slow.)
folds [number n] /[term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Folds the target term n
times to become M
. The outermost form
of the target term must match precisely the outermost form of the
normal form of the n
th unfolding of M
. Useful for adding
multiple ap
annotations at once. (Not very useful with multiple
terms at once, since each use must be folded exactly n
times.)
unfold /[constant/variable] [targets]/
Unfolds a target term with the specified head constant or variable, and then weak-head-normalizes the result.
unfoldHead /[constant/variable] [targets]/
Unfolds a target term with the specified head constant or variable, but does not weak-head-normalize the result. Thus, if the head takes arguments, unfoldHead will leave a beta redex.
roll /[term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Rolls the target term to become M
, using (in reverse) the
unrolling reduction given for the term’s head constant. The
outermost form of the target term must match precisely the outermost
form of the normal form of the unrolling of the specified term.
Unrolling reductions are defined automatically for recursive
functions defined by definerec
. One can establish unrolling
reductions for other constants using:
Database.setUnroll : constant -> Reduction.reduction -> unit
convertRoll /[term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Rolls the target term to become M
, using (in reverse) the
unrolling reduction given for the term’s head constant. (Finding
hit numbers may be slow.)
unroll /[constant c] [targets]/
Unrolls a target term with head constant c
, using the unrolling
reduction given for c
.
unrollType /[constant c] [targets]/
Unrolls a type with head constant c
, where c
is mu
or rec
,
or is defined using mu
or rec
.
unrollTypeUniv /[constant c] with [term i] within [captures] [targets]/
Unrolls a type with head constant c
, where c
is mu
or rec
or is defined using mu
or rec
. Uses i
as the level for the
inductive variable’s universe.
reduceUsing /[reduction] [targets]/
Applies the specified reduction. There is no syntax for reductions; they must be embedded using antiquotes. (Finding hit numbers may be slow.)
unreduceUsing /[reduction] with [term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Applies the reduction to M
to obtain a goal term. Replaces a
target term that is equivalent to the goal term with M
. The
outermost form of the target term must match precisely the outermost
form of the normal form of the goal term.
convertUnreduceUsing /[reduction] with [term M] within [captures] [targets]/
Applies the reduction to M
to obtain a goal term. Replaces a
target term that is equivalent to the goal term with M
.
(Finding hit numbers may be slow.)
reduce /[short-targets]/
Puts the target term into normal form.
whreduce /[short-targets]/
Puts the target term into weak-head-normal form.
reduceHard /[short-targets]/
Puts the target term into normal form, unfolding soft, firm, and soft-strict constants.
whreduceHard /[short-targets]/
Puts the target term into weak-head-normal form, unfolding soft, firm, and soft-strict constants.
testRewrite /[rewrite] [targets]/
As rewrite
, but shows what is to be done without doing it. Note
that since the rewrite is not actually performed, a target like at
0 0
will always show the same rewrite twice.
showPosition /[short-targets]/
Displays the indicated term positions.
Rewrite.trace : bool ref
When set to true, the rewriter traces the process of propagating a relation through the goal.
When the rewriter searches for terms matching its target, it employs one of three levels of strictness:
Strict: the term must match the target precisely.
Beta: the term must match the target up to beta-equivalence.
Intermediate: like beta, except the term and target must have the same head. This cuts the search space dramatically, making rewriting much faster.
Rewrites using ->
and <-
use intermediate matching, while the
variants -->
and <--
use strict matching. Intermediate matching
is normally preferred because of its better flexibility, but sometimes
strict matching is preferable. Consider the goal:
P (0 + 1 + x)
Rewriting this goal with -> Nat.plus_assoc
will fail, because its
target is E1 + E2 + E3
while the goal, up to beta equivalence, is
P (1 + x)
. Unification cannot uniquely solve the constraint
E1 + E2 = 1
. One can resolve this by giving the arguments
explicitly, as in -> Nat.plus_assoc 0 1 x
, but that is more verbose.
Alternatively, --> Nat.plus_assoc
works without explicit arguments.
That is because it does not respect beta-equivalence, so each evar’s
binding is uniquely determined.
Note that rewriting takes place before typechecking. This can affect what hits the rewriter finds. For example, consider the lemma:
min_eq_l : forall (m n : nat) . m <= n -> min m n = m : nat
Suppose H : (x <= y)
and one rewrites using -> min_eq_l _ _ H
.
Istari generates evars to fill in the underscores, say E1
and E2
.
Since typechecking has not taken place yet when the rewriter runs,
those evars have not yet unified with x
and y
. Thus, the rewriter
looks for terms it can unify with min E1 E2
, not with min x y
.
The former could easily hit more often than the latter.
The user can account for this behavior by choosing an appropriate hit
number, or by rewriting using -> min_eq_l x y H
.
(This behavior is intended because the user always has the option to
deal with typechecking subgoals manually, using rewriteRaw
for
example. It would be confusing if the rewriter behaved differently
when doing so.)